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Journal Articles - May 2009

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 Journal Articles - May 2009

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360-degree feedback : going around in circles?
Author: Tosti, Donald T.
Performance Improvement, Vol. 48, No. 3, March 2009, pp.36-39.
Multisource feedback (often called 360-degree feedback) is an excellent idea. However, it is often implemented in a way that can do more harm than good. Many commercially available 360-degree feedback programs seem to be poorly designed. They may provide reasonably accurate assessments but are inadequate in their delivery of those assessments. The problem lies primarily in the way they deliver the feedback. In this article, there is a discussion of the problems, and the positing of some remedies.

Amid the ashes
Author: Carnovale, Maria
Police Life, the Victoria Police Magazine, April 2009, pp. 16-17.
All Australians were touched by the devastation of the Victorian bushfires. But policemen involved in disaster victim identification had one of the toughest tasks, identifying the deceased and speaking to the families left behind. Also, a five phase guide to DVI.

An organisational safety net in an academic setting : an evaluation.
Author: Chachkes, Esther
Journal of Business Continuity and Emergency Planning, Vol.2 (4) July 2008, pp.403-415.
In a disaster situation, employees may not be able of willing to come to work, or may be preoccupied about their families. Indeed, many employees, stressed and anxious about their personal and family needs, may wish to leave their workplace as soon as possible and stay home until conditions return to 'normal'. It is therefore imperative to understand how an organisation's response to crisis events can reassure employees that their safety and wellbeing will be protected.
 
Bleeding dragon : catastrophe management for a rapidly developing China.
Author: Lai, Jenny
Risk Management, March 2009, pp.38-42.
China's booming economy offers plenty of opportunities for foreign investment. But how manageable is the country's natural catastrophe risk? Despite its loss history, China actually has a good record of catastrophe management, especially in recent years.  China needs to re-examine properties for their worthiness against natural and man-made disasters. A priority list should be drawn up to retrofit the most vulnerable. The collapse of buildings in any Chinese metropolis in the event of an earthquake could cause historically unparalleled losses of human life and set back the country's economic progress. A report.

Bushfire tragedy : how police responded.
Police Life, the Victoria Police Magazine, April 2009.
Special edition, an entire journal given over to the police response to the bushfires that occurred in Victoria on Black Saturday, 2007. Articles include: The day the sky turned black (an interview with Deputy Commissioner Kieran Walshe and Superintendent Rod Collins about how the tragedy unfolded) ; Kinglake knights (an article about the fires in Kinglake, which mostly burnt down apart from the Police Station, and surrounding areas) ; Amid the ashes (about the work of the Disaster Victim Identification Unit in identifying the dead and informing their relatives) ; Men of steel (about the work of two policemen who risked their lives to save a disabled woman in Steels Creek Road) ; Keeping the faith (about the work of police chaplains, who, regardless of race or religion, provide a shoulder to lean on during disasters).
 
Case study : emergency response to a supercell storm at the Australian National University.
Author: Meehan, Bart
Journal of Business Continuity and Emergency Planning, Vol.2 (4) July 2008, pp.380-389.
At 9.30pm on 28th February, 2007, a supercell storm hit Canberra, causing major damage to the city and the Australian National University, which its main campus located on the western fringe of the city centre. As a consequence, the university was closed for five days, while the buildings were checked structural/electrical damage caused hailstones and flooding. This paper provides a case study on emergency management strategy employed by the university in response to damage caused to campus facilities and consequent disruption to academic activities.

Cool heads will save the day
Author: Clode, Danielle
Emergency, The official publication of the Department of Emergency Services, February 2009, pp. 12-13.
The tragic bushfires in Victoria in recent weeks have highlighted the fact that the speed and intensity of such events can never be underestimated and that careful planning and preparation for any contingency are essential. How do people react to disasters? A look at some books, all of which have the same underlying message: people must take responsibility for their safety and for contributing to community cohesiveness in preparing for, and dealing with, disasters. The article is an abridged version of an article published in the Weekend Australian Review of Jan.24-25, 2009.

Crisis management and corporate strategy in African firms : towards a contingency approach.
Author: Ouedraogo, Alidou
Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, Vol.15 (4) December 2007, pp.220-231.
Crisis management logic suggests that preparing for a crisis should be a critical part of organizational strategy. This article aims to explore the difficulties in translating this logic into business practices in the African context.

Developing a multi-organisational strategy for managing emergencies and disasters.
Author: Ammann, Walter J.
Journal of Business Continuity and Emergency Planning, Vol.2 (4) July 2008, pp.390-402.
The challenge of coping with disasters, risks and emergency situations must be seen as a permanent management process with clearly defined tasks, responsibilities and resource allocations. This process requires continuous effort, including periodic identification, analyses and assessment of the critical stages along the risk circl, thus considering prevention, intervention and recovery. To cope effectively with disasters demand a clear strategy, involving all stakeholders and risk scenarios. This paper outlines the importance of an integral risk management process and public-private partnership and - taking Switzerland as an example - describes the process of developing and establishing a widely supported vision and strategy to cope with risk due to natural hazards.

Developing local emergency management by co-ordination between municipalities in policy networks : experiences from Sweden.
Author: Palm, Jenny
Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, Vol.15 (4) December 2007, pp.173-182.
This study aims to increase our understanding of how co-operation in inter-municipality policy networks in a Swedish region is established and maintained regarding emergency management.  Overall it concludes that co-ordination and co-operation in municipal emergency management are probably relatively easy to develop, because it is easy for the involved actors to see the benefits.
 
Disaster recovery with no strings attached
Author: Davis, Mark
Disaster Recovery Journal, Vol. 22, No. 1, Winter 2009, pp. 74-75.
This article analyses the benefits of deploying microwave technology to restore communications capabilities in disaster recovery scenarios.

Emergency management and land use planning in industrial hazardous areas : learning from an Italian experience.
Author: Caragliano, Simona
Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, Vol.15 (4) December 2007, pp.194-207.
This paper discusses some methodological and organizational issues characterizing local policies for industrial risk prevention in Italy. These include both emergency preparedness and land use control as strategic activities aimed at risk reduction in areas where Seveso facilities are located. The article discusses an Italian case study in the Lombardia region.

From the horse's mouth : lessons from equine influenza.
Author: Mickelberg, Graeme
ASM, Australian Security Magazine, September/October 2008, p. 56.
Last year's outbreak of equine influenza, and the subsequent inquiry, have biosecurity implications beyond the horse-racing industry. The nature of Australia's federation is such that coordination between the jurisdictions and amongst agencies in each of the states and territories is a fundamental requirement to the effective detection, response and recovery from biosecurity threats. A report.

Give us clarity on climate targets
Author: Brahic, Catherine
New Scientist, 21 March, 2009, pp. 6-7.
The climate conference in Copenhagen, Denmark, was meant to let scientists get their message to politicians clear and coordinated, however, some delegates worry the meeting has only created more confusion, leaving policy-makers less clear about what emissions targets to set.

Gone in 90 seconds
Author: Brooks, Michael
New Scientist, 21 March, 2009, pp. 31-35.
One solar storm could destroy power grids all over the world. A report from the US claims that plasma balls spewed from the surface of the sun could wipe out our power grids, with catastrophic consequences. The modern electricity grid is more vulnerable to space weather now than it has been in the past, and the grid's interdependence with various systems that support civilized life (computer networks, water and sewage treatment, etc.) make its collapse catastrophic.

Holistic strategic planning in the public sector
Author: Plant, Thomas
Performance improvement, Vol.48, No.2, February 2009, pp. 38-43.
This article focuses on developing a holistic approach to strategic planning. It suggests that a successful approach will view all components in the process as an integrated system through a holistic strategic framework. In addition, it focuses on reviewing the gaps that can develop in applying a holistic framework in a public sector environment and discusses ways to overcome those gaps to ensure a successful strategic planning process. Although the focus is on the public sector, many of the concepts can be applied to any organization in the nonprofit sector as well as the private sector.
 
Homeland security preparedness and planning in US city governments : a survey of city managers.
Author: Reddick, Christopher
Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, Vol.15 (3) September 2007, pp.157-167.
This article examines homeland security preparedness and planning with the aim of generating some future research themes related to organizational, collaborative, and adaptive management elements of homeland security. It analyzes survey data from city managers in the US and their views on the current state of homeland security. The key results indicate that there is a high level of collaboration between and among city government and other levels of government in homeland security preparedness and planning, supporting an element of the adaptive management theory.

How are operational risk and business continuity coming together as a common risk management spectrum?
Author: Vaid, Rajiv
Journal of Business Continuity and Emergency Planning, Vol.2 (4) July 2008, pp.330-339.
As the practices of business continuity and operational risk management are so closely intertwined, this paper analyses the background and characteristics of both. It also evaluates the risk management framework and examines the interdependence of operational risk and business continuity practices. In addition, it considers how best to combine the practices in order to meet the demands of business continuity planning. There is no one answer, and the best model depends on each organisation's unique requirements. This fact is key to any organisation's risk management strategy. With the increased focus on both business continuity and operational risk, it is best for organisations to put in place an integrated framework that provides the foundation for managing risk.

If the project fails, the plan fails
Author: Glenn, John
Disaster Recovery Journal, Vol. 22, No. 1, Winter 2009, pp. 34-36.
As business continuity planners we spend a lot of time looking for risks to our client’s critical operations. We create project plans and statements of work, carefully guesstimating the time needed for each phase of the project, which is fine if everything goes according to plan. As Murphy knows, things rarely do “go according to plan.” We are well advised to look for risks to the project before we begin to develop the plan. I also learned that having an experienced project manager on board can be a very good thing.
 
Implementation of best practices for online teaching and learning in an online institution
Author: Irlbeck, Sonja A.
Performance Improvement, Vol. 47, No. 10, November/December 2008, pp. 25-29.
This article documents the creation of and rationale behind best practices to maintain high performance for teaching and learning at an online university. The grassroots involvement of faculty, building on best practice efforts that guided faculty in the past, the effort to engage the full faculty in the review of documents describing best practices that were generated by a team of faculty, and the support for implementation of best practices to maintain high performance for Capella University faculty are described.

Influenza immunisation of doctors at an Australian tertiary hospital : immunisation rate and factors contributing to uptake
Author: Kaufman, Jonathan
Communicable Diseases Intelligence, Vol. 32, No. 4, December 2008, pp. 443-448.
Immunisation of health care workers against influenza reduces influenza-related morbidity and mortality of hospital inpatients and staff absenteeism. Uptake of influenza vaccination amongst hospital doctors is generally inadequate, and factors contributing to influenza vaccine uptake among doctors have not been well defined. This includes an audit of doctors at an Australian hospital to establish the rate of and the factors contributing to influenza immunisation uptake.

International cooperation in emergencies
Author: Shore, Malcolm
ASM, Australian Security Magazine, September/October 2008, pp. 46-47.
Disaster planners can ensure communications support first-responder agencies through compliance with ITU/UN standards. Interoperability depends on the existence of, and adherence to, standards, and two organisations are leading the work on establishing standards and processes for telecommunications used in the event of a disaster: the ITU and the UN.

Issues of diversity in crisis management
Author: Osilaja, Peter D.
Disaster Recovery Journal, Vol. 22, No. 1, Winter 2009, pp. 70-73.
Our world is changing. Forces of constant change, chaos, and complexity are replacing forces of stability and permanence that prevailed over our way of life. Methods of organizing such as top-down, command and control, monocentrism of viewpoints and culture, are being challenged and are proving to be ineffective in our education, religion, politics, and government. The predictable, permanent, homogenous community is now rare. Fueled by globalization and technology (and climate change), econocentric perspectives have shown their flaws and limitations in managing variations and complexities, leading to frequent crises. The author is the CEO/founder of KidSafety of America.

Keeping the faith
Author: Campbell, Sarah
Police Life, the Victoria Police Magazine, April 2009, pp. 32-33.
Police often witness tragic, violent and sad scenes, and the bushfires that devastated Victoria were no exception. To help them through these events are police chaplains who, regardless of race or religion, provide a shoulder to lean on.

Managing contemporary maritime security challenges
Author: Fielding, Marcus
ASM, Australian Security Magazine, September/October 2008, pp. 50-52.
With one of the largest maritime domains in the world, Australia faces a range of maritime security threats. The Border Protection Command's Director of Strategic Plans, Colonel Marcus Fielding, discusses the government's arrangements to protect national interests.

Mapping under fire
Author: Ting, Inga
Position Magazine, Issue 40, April-May 2009, pp.10-11.
One of the many questions raised by Victoria's devastating bushfires concerns the need for open data, and the role of private industry in assisting with information flows to the public in disaster situations. Using CFA data, Google has constructed a fire map of Victoria. Because CFA is only responsible for fires on private lands, the map is incomplete. The Department of Sustainability and the Environment has data for public lands, but refused Google permission to use it. DSE and CFA mapping units are working closer together than in the past, and DSE has even signalled a desire to work with Google in the future. A report on the mammoth job of mapping the worst natural disaster in the nation's history.
 
Maritime security landscape set for change
Author: Davitt, Ernie
ASM, Australian Security Magazine, September/October 2008, pp. 48-49.
From preparing for the impact of climate change and rising sea levels, to heightened Federal and State law enforcement presence to protect our marine resources, the port and maritime security landscape in Australia is poised for major change. A report.

Narcissism and effective crisis management : a review of potential problems and pitfalls.
Author: King, Granville
Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, Vol.15 (4) December 2007, pp.183-193.
In the event of a crisis, effective leadership by senior officials plays a significant role in an organization's attempt to return to a state of normal operation. Effectiveness, however, can be hampered by a leader's behaviour and attitude towards colleagues, and other employees within the organization. This paper explores how narcissism and narcissistic leaders may affect crisis management within an organization.

Nuclear security case study : earthquake in Sichuan Province, China.
Author: Swan, Geoff
ASM, Australian Security Magazine, September/October 2008, pp. 54-55.
One of the results of the recent earthquake in Western China was the presence of radioactivity in the disaster area. Geoff Swan, of the Security Research Centre at Edith Cowan University, considers the specific importance of nuclear security, using the Chinese earthquake as a starting point. He concludes that the possible severe consequences of radioactive release mean that Australia should learn from the Chinese experience and update our contingency plans.

Pandemic readiness in the US financial services sector : when failure is not an option.
Author: Searle, Annie
Journal of Business Continuity and Emergency Planning, Vol.2 (4) July 2008 , pp.357-364.
This paper provides an update to 'Pandemic flu planning in the US financial services sector', a paper published in Volume 1, Number 3, of Journal of Business Continuity and Emergency Planning. In the present paper, the author examines the state of pandemic readiness on year later, one year later, referencing four new publications available for planning in the USA. The paper focuses on key observations and lessons learned from the US Department of Treasury's autumn 2007 exercise, which was conducted among 2,775 financial services institutions. The paper then briefly discusses the pandemic guidance issued by the Federal Institutions Examination Council in December 2007.
 
Predicting pandemics
Author: Holbrook, Emily
Risk Management, March 2009, pp.12-14.
Dr. Nathan Wolfe and the Global Viral Forecasting Initiative are aiming to predict future pandemics and prevent them before they take hold. A report on their work, mainly in tropical jungles testing the blood of bush meat hunters to determine if any unknown virus has transferred from the animals they hunt and kill to the killers themselves.

Prospective surveillance of excess mortality due to influenza in New South Wales : feasibility and statistical approach
Author: Muscatello, David J.
Communicable Diseases Intelligence, Vol. 32, No. 4, December 2008, pp. 435-442.
Influenza is a serious disease that seasonally causes varying but substantial morbidity and mortality. Therefore, strong, rapid influenza surveillance systems are a priority. Surveillance of the population mortality burden of influenza is difficult because few deaths have laboratory confirmation of infection. Prospective and reasonably rapid monitoring of excess mortality due to influenza in an Australian setting is feasible. The modelling approach allows health departments to make a more objective assessment of the severity of seasonal influenza and the effectiveness of mitigation strategies.

Ranking the risks from multiple hazards in a small community
Author: Li, Hua
Risk Analysis, Vol. 29, No. 3, March 2009, pp. 438-456.
Natural hazards, human-induced accidents, and malicious acts have caused great losses and disruptions to society. After September 11, 2001, critical infrastructure protection has become a national focus in the United States and is likely to remain one for the foreseeable future. Damage to the infrastructures and assets could be mitigated through predisaster planning and actions. A systematic methodology was developed to assess and rank the risks from these multiple hazards in a community of 20,000 people.

Risk-based decision making for terrorism applications
Author: Dillon, Robin L.
Risk Analysis, Vol. 29, No. 3, March 2009, pp. 321-335.
This article describes the anti-terrorism risk-based decision aid (ARDA), a risk-based decision-making approach for prioritizing anti-terrorism measures. The ARDA model was developed as part of a larger effort to assess investments for protecting U.S. Navy assets at risk and determine whether the most effective anti-terrorism alternatives are being used to reduce the risk to the facilities and war-fighting assets.

Spatial model of forest management strategies and outcomes in the wildland-urban interface.
Author: Platt, R.V.
Natural Hazards Review, Vol.9 (4) November 2008, pp.199-208.
In fire-prone areas of the western United States, mechanical thinning is often seen as a way to achieve two outcomes: Wildfire mitigation and restoration of historical forest structure. In this study, a spatial modeling approach is used to (1) find which forests are likely to be thinned under different criteria; (2) for these forests, evaluate whether wildfire mitigation and restoration of historical forest structure are potentially needed; and (3) determine whether these results change under alternative assumptions related to weather and fire history. Though specific to the montane zone of Boulder County, the results of this study support wider criticisms of national fire policy.

Sunrise propane explosion
Author: Stewart, William A.
Disaster Management Canada, Vol. 3, Iss. 1, Spring 2009, pp. 16-18.
A propane explosion rocked the city of Toronto. Here is a rundown of how emergency responders successfully responded to the Sunrise Propane blaze and averted an even larger disaster.

Taking action
Author: Katynski, Liz
Disaster Management Canada, Vol. 3, Iss. 1, Spring 2009, pp. 11-12.
When it comes to preparing businesses and people for disaster, Canada's public and private sectors need to step things up a notch. There is a patchwork of initiatives peppered throughout the country, but consistent and effective training is a long way off. A report.

Teen killers don't come from schools that foster a sense of belonging
Author: Geddes, Linda
New Scientist, 21 March, 2009, p.19
Research into eight school shootings in the US shows that shootings appear more likely in schools characterised by a high degree of social stratification and low bonding and attachment between teachers and students.

The application of the job-demands-resources model in predicting stress and satisfaction in volunteer populations : a literature review.
Author: Huynh, Ngan
Australian Journal on Volunteering, Vol. 13, No.2, 2008, pp. 4961.
This literature review presents an overview of the research to date on occupational stress and satisfaction in volunteer workers. First, the paper reviews several different models of occupational stress. Second, a critical examination is conducted of current research studies supporting the JD-R model, particularly in volunteer populations. Third, empirical evidence is summarised for the support of the negative and positive pathways of the JD-R model in volunteers. Finally, the psychological concepts of engagement and connectedness as mediators in the positive pathway are differentiated.

The bond between intelligences : cultural, emotional and social.
Author: Kumar, Naresh
Performance Improvement, Vol. 47, No. 10, November/December 2008, pp. 42-48.
Increasing enterest in multiple forms of nonacademic intelligences in addition to the well-established inteligent quotient (IQ) to explain individual success has triggered a need for clear establishment of the theoretical and empirical connection among these constructs. As such, this article explores the interrelationship that exists among three forms of nonacademic intelligences: cultural, emotional and social. Theoretical and practical implications are also discussed.


The staffing threshold model : a systematic approach to addressing absenteeism in a pandemic.
Author: Henzlreiter, Manfred
Journal of Business Continuity and Emergency Planning, Vol.2 (4) July 2008, pp.365-379.
This paper raises management concerns about the organisational and personal impacts of a pandemic outbreak and specifically relates to those issues surrounding employee absenteeism. Principally, this is addressed through the introduction of the staffing threshold model, an original framework developed by the authors that provides managers with a structured methodology to help organisations have had time to reflect on the macro impacts of a pandemic outbreak, the area that tends to garner much attention is the human resources department. Because this work is completely new, and there are no precedents from which to extrapolate (only recently, in fact, have business continuity professionals even started to recognise the importance of incorporating the human element into their planning efforts), there are no case studies against which to measure the methodology. Nonetheless, the authors feel that the introduction of a systematised method of managing worker absenteeism can make a valuable contribution to the field.

Training myths : false beliefs that limit the efficiency and effectiveness of training solutions, part 1
Author: Hannum, Wallace
Performance improvement, Vol.48, No.2, February 2009, pp. 26-30.
This article questions commonly held beliefs about training as a component of performance improvement solutions. Rather than being based on theoretical and empirical support, many beliefs about training are based on little more than myth.

Understanding the geography of post-traumatic stress : an academic justification for using a spatial video acquisition system in response to Hurricane Katrina.
Author: Curtis, Andrew
Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, Vol.15 (4) December 2007, pp.208-209.
In the aftermath of a disaster like Hurricane Katrina, remote-sensing methods are often employed in an effort to assess damage. However, their utility may be limited by the aerial perspective and image resolution. The Spatial Video Acquisition System (SVAS), in conjunction with a Geographic Information System (GIS), has the potential to be a complementary methodology for obtaining damage assessment information as well as capturing recovery related geographies associated with post-traumatic stress.

Volunteer firefighting and family life : an organisational perspective on conflict between volunteer and family roles.
Author: Cowlishaw, Sean
Australian Journal on Volunteering, Vol. 13, No.2, 2008, pp. 21-31.
Protection to Australian communities from fire and othe emergencies is provided mostly by volunteers. However, declining volunteer numbers have forced emergency agencies to consider factors impacting adversely on volunteer retention. The current study provides an organisational perspective on the difficulties of balancing volunteering and family commitments through semi-structured interviews with managers of Australian volunteer firefighters. A thematic analysis of interviews identified several themes, including volunteers' difficulty prioritising family needs ahead of brigade responsibilities, leaving household and business responsibilities with family members, a lack of time with family, and interruptions to family routines and activities.

What security and emergency information do businesses want from government? A New York survey.
Author: Raisch, William
Journal of Business Continuity and Emergency Planning, Vol.2 (4) July 2008, pp.340-348.
This paper presents and analyses survey findings gathered from New York City metropolitan and business continuity and emergency management professionals regarding the flow of security and emergency preparedness information between government and business. It finds the NYC metropolitan area businesses want information from government to inform their activities before, during and after a crisis.

Why do they do it? : a case study of National Trust (NSW) volunteers.
Author: Mackaway, Jacqueline
Australian Journal on Volunteering, Vol. 13, No.2, 2008, pp. 32-39.
Volunteers play an important role in the day-to-day operation of organisations within the arts and culture sector in Australia. Their contribution is becoming more significant as organisations within this sector face a range of challenges including economic pressures. In spite of this, little research has been undertaken in the arts and culture sector in Australia to understand why people give their time freely to these organisations. This paper examines the findings of a pilot case study of the National Trust (NSW), the largest non-government conservation organisation in Australia, exploring the hypothesis put forward by Edwards (2005a) that volunteer motivation in the arts and culture sector is predominantly self-driven.
 
World earthquake fatalities from the past : implications for the present and future.
Author: Nichols, John
Natural Hazards Review, Vol.9 (4) November 2008, pp.179-189.
A method to estimate the likely fatalities in earthquakes in the twenty-first century is a statistical analysis of the data for fatalities in earthquakes from the last two millennia.